Photography is the art, science, and practice of creating durable images by recording light (photons - hence, \photo\-graphy) or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor. Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result in a photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically developed into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing. Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing, art, recreational purposes, and mass communication.
A model (from Middle French modèle//aew), sometimes called a mannequin, is a person who is employed to display, advertise and promote commercial products or to serve as a subject of works of art. Modelling is distinguished from other types of public performance, such as an acting, dancing or mime artist, although the boundary is not well defined. Appearing in a movie or a play is almost never considered modelling.
Model (person)Human appearanceModelingModels (occupation)
"Photographic" redirects here. For other uses, see Photography (disambiguation) Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.
PhotographyGreek loanwordsOpticsPhotography1822 introductions
Reconnaissance is the military term for exploring beyond the area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about enemy forces or features of the environment. Often referred to as recce (British & Commonwealth) or recon (USA), the associated verb is reconnoitre in British English or reconnoiter in American English.
ReconnaissanceMilitary intelligence collectionReconnaissanceMilitary cartographyFrench loanwordsManeuver tactics
Etching is the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process—in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used on other types of material). As an intaglio method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today.
Installation art describes an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are often site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior interventions are often called Land art; however, the boundaries between these terms overlap.
Installation artContemporary artArt genresInstallation artArt movements
A collage is a work of formal art, primarily in the visual arts, made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. A collage may sometimes include newspaper clippings, ribbons, bits of colored or hand-made papers, portions of other artwork or texts, photographs and other found objects, glued to a piece of paper or canvas.
CollageDecorative artsFound artCollageSurrealismContemporary artArtistic techniquesCubismPaper art
Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism.
PhotojournalismJournalism occupationsPhotography by genreStock photographyPhotojournalismJournalism genresVisual journalism
Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide.
A digital camera (or digicam) is a camera that takes video or still photographs by recording images on an electronic image sensor. Most cameras sold today are digital, and digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones to vehicles. Digital and film cameras share an optical system, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device.
Digital cameraAmerican inventionsDigital camerasDigital photography
A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Assemblies of solar cells are used to make solar modules which are used to capture energy from sunlight.
Solar cellSolar cellsSemiconductor devicesEnergy harvestingRussian inventionsEnergy conversionAmerican inventions
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics or 3-D imaging) refers to a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by presenting two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer. These two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3-D depth.
Lockheed P-38 Lightning
The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II American fighter aircraft built by Lockheed. Developed to a United States Army Air Corps requirement, the P-38 had distinctive twin booms and a single, central nacelle containing the cockpit and armament.
Lockheed P-38 LightningPropeller aircraftTwin boom aircraftUnited States fighter aircraft 1930–1939Lockheed aircraft
De Havilland Mosquito
The de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito was a British multi-role combat aircraft, with a two-man crew, that served during the Second World War and the postwar era. The Mosquito was one of the few operational, front-line aircraft to be constructed almost entirely of wood and, as such, was nicknamed "The Wooden Wonder".
De Havilland MosquitoDe Havilland Canada aircraftDe Havilland aircraftBritish bomber aircraft 1940–1949World War II British bombersWorld War II night fighter aircraft
In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable or, in most new printers, a USB cable to a computer which serves as a document source.
Printer (computing)Computer printersOffice equipmentTypography
Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position. The term usually refers to images in which the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure. Cameras may be hand held or mounted, and photographs may be taken by a photographer, triggered remotely or triggered automatically. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, balloons, blimps and dirigibles, rockets, kites, poles, parachutes, and vehicle mounted poles.
Aerial photographyPhotography by genreAerial photographyOccupations in aviationCartography
This article is mainly concerned with still photography film. For motion picture film, please see film stock. Photographic film is a sheet of plastic coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive silver halide salts with variable crystal sizes that determine the sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film. When the emulsion is sufficiently exposed to light (or other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays), it forms a latent (invisible) image.
Photographic filmPhotographic filmsStorage mediaPhotography equipment
Rendering (computer graphics)
Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file), by means of computer programs. A scene file contains objects in a strictly defined language or data structure; it would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information as a description of the virtual scene.
Rendering (computer graphics)3D computer graphics
A yearbook, also known as an annual, is a book to record, highlight, and commemorate the past year of a school or a book published annually. Virtually all American, Australian and Canadian high schools, most colleges and many elementary and middle schools publish yearbooks. The term may also refer to a book of statistics or facts published annually.
YearbookBooks by typeStudent mediaAcademia
A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine) is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply. Most current photocopiers use a technology called xerography, a dry process using heat. (Copiers can also use other technologies such as ink jet, but xerography is standard for office copying.
PhotocopierOffice equipment1949 introductionsComputer peripheralsPhotocopiers
Adverse drug reaction
An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is an expression that describes harm associated with the use of given medications at a normal dosage during normal use. ADRs may occur following a single dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the combination of two or more drugs. The meaning of this expression differs from the meaning of "side effect", as this last expression might also imply that the effects can be beneficial.
Adverse drug reactionDrug safetyPharmacologyPharmacy
A theatrical property, commonly referred to as a prop, is an object used on stage by actors to further the plot or story line of a theatrical production. Smaller props are referred to as "hand props". Larger props may also be set decoration, such as a chair or table. The difference between a set decoration and a prop is use. If the item is not touched by a performer for any reason it is simply a set decoration.
Theatrical propertyProp designStagecraft
Photovoltaic systems (PV system) use solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity. A system is made up of one or more solar panels, usually a controller or power converter, and the interconnections and mounting for the other components. A small PV system may provide energy to a single consumer, or to an isolated device like a lamp or a weather instrument. Large grid-connected PV systems can provide the energy needed by many customers.
In computing, an image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner—is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting, or an object, and converts it to a digital image. Common examples found in offices are variations of the desktop (or flatbed) scanner where the document is placed on a glass window for scanning.
Image scannerOffice equipmentComputing input devices
Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. Phototoxic dermatitis occurs when the allergen or irritant is activated by sunlight.
Contact dermatitisOccupational safety and healthContact dermatitis
A safari is an overland journey, usually a trip by tourists to Africa. Traditionally, the term is used for a big-game hunt, but today the term often refers to a trip taken not for the purposes of hunting, but to observe and photograph animals and other wildlife.
SafariHuntingTourism in AfricaAfrican culturesSwahili words and phrasesTypes of tourismArabic words and phrases
Look (American magazine)
Look was a bi-weekly, general-interest magazine published in Des Moines, Iowa from 1937 to 1971, with more of an emphasis on photographs than articles. A large-size magazine of 11 by 14 inches, it was generally considered the also-ran to Life magazine, which began publication months earlier and ended in 1972. It is known for helping launch the career of film director Stanley Kubrick, who was a staff photographer.
Look (American magazine)Publications established in 1937American weekly magazinesDefunct magazines of the United StatesPublications disestablished in 1971News magazines
In the photoelectric effect, electrons are emitted from matter as a consequence of their absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength, such as visible or ultraviolet radiation. Electrons emitted in this manner may be referred to as photoelectrons. First observed by Heinrich Hertz in 1887, the phenomenon is also known as the Hertz effect, although the latter term has fallen out of general use.
Photoelectric effectPhotovoltaicsFoundational quantum physicsAlbert EinsteinElectrical phenomenaEnergy conversion
Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made by means of artificial satellites.
Satellite imageryPhotography by genreSatellitesSatellite broadcasting
Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.
Offset printingPlanographic printing1903 introductions
Digital photography is a form of photography that uses an array of light sensitive sensors to capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an exposure on light sensitive film. The captured image is then stored as a digital file ready for digital processing (colour correction, sizing, cropping, etc. ), viewing or printing.
Digital photographyDigital photography
Multimedia Messaging Service
Multimedia Messaging Service, or MMS, is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from mobile phones. It extends the core SMS (Short Message Service) capability that allowed exchange of text messages only up to 160 characters in length. The most popular use is to send photographs from camera-equipped handsets, although it is also popular as a method of delivering news and entertainment content including videos, pictures, text pages and ringtones.
Multimedia Messaging ServiceMobile telecommunication servicesMobile telecommunications standards3rd Generation Partnership Project standardsOpen Mobile Alliance standards
Photolithography (also termed "optical lithography" or "UV lithography") is a process used in microfabrication to selectively remove parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or simply "resist," on the substrate.
Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information creating a painting that appears photographic. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
PhotorealismModern artContemporary artArt movementsPhotorealism
Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance that is conducted using unmanned aerial vehicles or reconnaissance aircraft. Their roles are to collect imagery intelligence, signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence.
Aerial reconnaissanceMilitary cartographyAerial warfareEspionageReconnaissance
In photography, a negative may refer to three different things, although they are all related.
Negative (photography)Photographic film typesPhotography equipment
A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illuminate a scene. A major purpose of a flash is to illuminate a dark scene. Other uses are capturing quickly moving objects or changing the quality of light. Flash refers either to the flash of light itself or to the electronic flash unit discharging the light.
Flash (photography)Flash photographyLight sourcesPhotographic lighting
Marine Corps Air Station El Toro
Marine Corps Air Station El Toro was a United States Marine Corps Air Station located near Irvine, California. Before it was decommissioned in 1999, it was the 4,682 acres (19 km) home of Marine Corps aviation on the West Coast. Designated as a Master Jet Station, its four runways (two of 8,000 feet and two of 10,000 feet) could handle the largest aircraft in the U.S. military inventory. While it was active, all U.S. Presidents in the post-WWII era landed in Air Force One at this airfield.
Marine Corps Air Station El ToroDefunct United States Marine Corps air stationsBuildings and structures in Orange County, CaliforniaDefunct airports in CaliforniaMilitary facilities in CaliforniaWorld War II airfields in the United StatesMilitary Superfund sitesHistory of Irvine, CaliforniaHistory of Orange County, California
Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. Several different types of stage lighting instruments are used in this discipline. In addition to basic lighting, modern stage lighting can also include special effects, such as lasers and fog machines. People who work on stage lighting are commonly referred to as lighting technicians.
Stage lightingStage lightingStagecraft
Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. These detectors multiply the current produced by incident light by as much as 100 million times, in multiple dynode stages, enabling (for example) individual photons to be detected when the incident flux of light is very low.
PhotomultiplierParticle detectorsOptical devicesSensorsMedical imagingIonising radiation detectorsVacuum tubes
Magnum Photos is an international photographic cooperative owned by its photographer-members, with offices located in New York, Paris, London and Tokyo. According to co-founder Henri Cartier-Bresson, "Magnum is a community of thought, a shared human quality, a curiosity about what is going on in the world, a respect for what is going on and a desire to transcribe it visually."
Magnum PhotosPhotography organizationsOrganizations established in 1947Artist cooperativesCooperatives
Coffee table book
A coffee table book is a hardcover book that is intended to sit on a coffee table or similar surface in an area where guests sit and are entertained, thus inspiring conversation or alleviating boredom. They tend to be oversized and of heavy construction, since there is no pressing need for portability. Subject matter is generally confined to non-fiction, and is usually visually oriented.
Coffee table bookBooks by type
London College of Communication
The London College of Communication (LCC) (formerly the London College of Printing and, briefly, London College of Printing and Distributive Trades) is a constituent college of the University of the Arts London, located in Elephant and Castle. Professor Elizabeth Rouse is Head of College. It has about 5,000 students on 60 courses in media and design preparing students for careers in the creative industries. Courses cover diploma, foundation, undergraduate and postgraduate level.
London College of CommunicationGraphic design schoolsUniversity of the Arts London1894 establishments in EnglandEducational institutions established in 1894
2001 anthrax attacks
The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on Tuesday, September 18, 2001, one week after the September 11 attacks. Letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and two Democratic U.S. Senators, killing five people and infecting 17 others.
2001 anthrax attacks2001 anthrax attacksTerrorist incidents in the United States in 2001Terrorism in the United States
A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. The common, traditional solar cell used to generate electric solar power is a large area photodiode. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device.
PhotodiodeOptical diodesOptoelectronicsPhotonicsOptical devices
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima is a historic photograph taken on February 23, 1945, by Joe Rosenthal. It depicts five United States Marines and a U.S. Navy corpsman raising the flag of the United States atop Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. The photograph was extremely popular, being reprinted in thousands of publications.
Raising the Flag on Iwo JimaBattle of Iwo Jima1945 worksSpecial events flagsUnited States Marine Corps in popular cultureUnited States Marine Corps lore and symbolsPacific Ocean theater of World War IIArticles containing video clipsWorld War II photographsPulitzer Prize for Photography winnersPhotography in JapanFlags of the United StatesBlack-and-white photographsUnited States Marine Corps in World War II
List of Sailor Moon episodes
The 200 episodes of the Japanese anime series Sailor Moon were adapted from the eighteen volume manga series of the same name written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. The episodes were directed by Junichi Sato, Kunihiko Ikuhara, Takuya Igarashi, Takao Yoshizawa and Hiromichi Matano, and produced by TV Asahi and Toei Animation. The first four seasons were dubbed and released in North America by DIC Entertainment and Cloverway.
List of Sailor Moon episodesLists of anime episodesSailor Moon episode lists
Glamour photography is a genre of photography whereby the subjects, usually female, are portrayed in a romantic or sexually alluring way. The subjects may be fully clothed or seminude, but glamour photography stops short of deliberately arousing the viewer and being pornographic photography. Glamour photography is generally a composed image of a subject in a still position.
Glamour photographyGlamour modelsPhotography by genreErotic photography
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons. It is defined as the interaction of one or more photons with one target molecule. Photodissociation is not limited to visible light. Any photon with sufficient energy can affect the chemical bonds of a chemical compound.
"Color film" redirects here. For the motion picture equivalent, see Color motion picture film. Color photography is photography that uses media capable of representing colors, which are traditionally produced chemically during the photographic processing phase. By contrast, black-and-white (monochrome) photography records only a single channel of luminance (brightness) and uses media capable only of showing shades of gray.
Color photography1907 introductionsPhotography by genreColorScottish inventions
Photochemistry, a sub-discipline of chemistry, is the study of chemical reactions that proceed with the absorption of light by atoms or molecules.. Everyday examples include photosynthesis, the degradation of plastics and the formation of vitamin D with sunlight.
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